Apply emergent literacy to high school learners

Emergent Learners experience
Secondary Students should experience
Print Motivation
Book sharing, Point out the parts of a book,  end flaps, cover, names, follow text with finger, pause to think aloud about passages.  Get up and dance

Point out parts of a reading,  your relationship with the author, the copyright and life relative to that date.   Use projectors or online sources to change the font, to highlight passages, add or subtract imagery.
Shape of the article (newspaper vs. essay, Why was the image included with the article- would a different image work better?) What ads accompany the article? Textbook scavenger hunts.
Phonological Awareness
Rhythm, sound, song, audio, alliteration

Rereading, hearing stories over& over builds memory, practice
Read aloud, reading with different voices, accompanying media files, (youtube, TEDed) 
Finding other views, voices discussing the same topic. Finding or creating limerics, authors discussing their own work (podcasts)
Repeat terms, phrases from a reading many times in class.
Students should practice conversing with terms & phrases
Letter Knowledge
Recognize shapes of letters and all the shapes have meaning.

Break it down, decoding, synonyms,
What a word can not do… (tropics can’t grow maple trees) (mammals can’t be snakes
Synonyms, antonyms, imagery,  “good world knowledge”(related experiences)
Draw, sketch up,
What a phrase can’t mean, what a word can’t do…
A democracy can’t be a theocracy. Right or wrong?
Reread, reread, reread
Repeated phrases, cumulative tale, plot, sequence, make predictions, what will happen next?
Allow for multiple responses,
Raise the possibility for what is acceptable.
Outline guide of reading.
Question list or survey overview of article.
Read a critique of the author.
Watch professional or internet versions of the same reading. Listen to the voice of the author online.
This paragraph does this… The development begins here.  This question is where the argument changes. This climate chart is the most important piece…
Print Awareness
Print has different functions: menus, lists, etc. , read aloud
Guess and predict, what will happen next, how do you know from the print?  
Embed open ended questions based on reading. Accept more than one right answer.
Who is this author? Why is this article chosen by you?  Would you choose an article like this? Find an isolated excerpt.   Thumbs up or thumbs down on one isolated excerpt.
Allow to critique question, change the reading. Change the shape by deleting one paragraph, discuss why.
Add cartoons
Allow for

Connect text to other texts, connect text to self and world.

never giving children the impression that there is only one response to a complex issue. Doing so defeats the child’s sense of wonder, and raises the stakes of what is acceptable to an impossibly high level. (
Witte-Townsend, & DiGiulio, 2004)

When secondary educators review coverage of emergent literacy skills, it just clicks
Incorporate routines that guarantee solid minimums for reading comprehension by giving assignment credit in
  1. Reading multiple times for meaning. (once silently, once as a class, once at home or with a friend, audio file...)
    1. use class discussion for phonological awareness, print awareness, read alouds
  2. rewriting Short Answer Questions as a statement, with any added explanation (this should be worth 2/5 points)
  3. Reading must be discussed two or more times. (once in class with student responses, Pair/share, parent signature on at home discussion.  Peer signature- bus ride) 
  4. Passages highlighted that you do or do not understand with reason. (Great use of interactive whiteboards, projected versions of various student's highlighted works) 
  5. Students that use evidence with reason no matter what, receive some credit
  6. Students should have choices in what questions they answer.  Some questions could be worth more than others. (if Short Answer Question homework is started in class, make it worth 3 points, edits and add ons for homework can be worth 2 more- or  if you have 5 questions- choose only 2- make them worth different values- include an all or nothing tough question)
  7. avoid regrading same assignment.  Grade added values- edits in a new color. Student collaborations on a second piece of paper.  Include a grade of an inclass and out of class checklist for point value

Grading checklist out of 5 points

Classwork (2pts. earned
Added value ( +1 for each)
Multiple readings
In class- once/twice
Signature- parent, peer, other
Participation- posed question, restated a term, volunteered read aloud, pair/share, oral quiz, recall, exit ticket, voice mail. Vote, criticize, Thumbs up or down
Highlights passages, annotates

Rewrites question as part of the answer
Develops the answer in general terms and with specific pieces of evidence.

Gives evidence as a list, as a generality or quotes article
Gives reason for evidence.  This quote means..  this is why…  so from this we can infer…
Avoid regarding
Allow redo  *
Chooses questions
Go for broke question- all or nothing points.  Or choose easier questions for single point values.
Accept more than one right answer, especially when reason is given.

Narrative, summary, analysis
Answers all questions
Adds more text analysis, makes a text to self connection, a text to world or a text to new text connection
Answer same question with depth or pick a new question.
Accept edits. Offer different color, highlight or pencil. Email works. Allow students to collaborate (even easier to grade)
*Tomlinson, C. A., & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating differentiated instruction & understanding by design: connecting content and kids. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision andCurriculum Development.

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